Portugal’s legal framework for energy and climate policy is expressed in the Basic Climate Law – Lei de Bases do Clima (Lei n.º 98/2021 de 31 de Dezembro) which is under the responsibility of the Environment and Energetic Transition Ministry. The law stipulates the country’s commitment to Climate Action and defines the basis of climate policy in its various dimensions, such as recognizing a climate emergency, defining the objectives and principles of climate policy and clarifying climate rights and duties, among others.
Ireland has a unique population spread: 34.5% live in cities, 26.3% in towns, and 39.2% in rural areas, differentiating it from other European countries. When it comes to housing, Ireland mainly has detached (40.1%) and semi-detached homes (49.9%). These unique demographic and housing characteristics play into the country’s retrofitting efforts. From 2000 to 2019, Ireland realized a remarkable 41.2% energy savings, ranking it third highest in the EU. This showcases the country’s strong potential for positive change in energy consumption. While the country has made significant strides in energy-saving, indicating a dedication to change, there remains an immediate need for more energy-efficient measures in homes. This challenge is not just about retrofitting alone; it’s about adopting a comprehensive approach. Such a strategy must consider the unique dynamics of rental situations, the diversity of housing types, and the specific requirements of retrofitting policies.
Bulgaria has one of the highest levels of energy poverty, with a fourth of the population unable to adequately warm their home. Energy efficiency measures and renewable energy installations are crucial to reduce energy poverty and achieve a decarbonised and energy-efficient building stock in Bulgaria. Bulgaria offers an enabling framework of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy installations consisting of subsidies and grants, support services as well as tariffing and tax incentives. Bulgaria has specific renovation targets in place and substantial funding and support services, such as one-stop-shops, are available. However, Bulgaria’s renovation rate remains low, with an estimated 1.3% of medium and 0.1% of deep renovations.
Belgium has a federal structure. The three regions, Flanders, Wallonia and the Brussel capital region, are responsible for areas such as energy consumption and production, the promotion of renewable energy sources, public transport, transport infrastructure, urban and rural planning, agriculture, and waste management. The Federal State is responsible for many aspects of fiscal policy, as well as for civil and corporate policies.